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Title:
Resilience of Cambodian lowland rice farming systems to future climate uncertainty, by P.L. Poulton, N.P. Dalgliesh, S. Vang, C.H. Roth, Field Crops Research 198 (2016) 160–170
Description:
Abstract
Rice production is the major source of food security in Cambodia where 85% of the total arable land is cultivated to rice with traditional transplanted medium and later maturity varieties accounting for >70% of the plantings during the monsoon period. Climate change poses risks and opportunities to the sus- tained productivity of rice based farming systems in Cambodia. The objective of this study is to evaluate adaptation strategies that support the replacement of traditional low input systems with a ‘response’ farming approach for better temporal utilisation of available labour, land and water resources. Options include replacing a traditional transplanted crop with short duration varieties, more efficient crop estab- lishment methods and better agronomic and fertiliser management that responds to timing, intensity and longevity of the monsoon and has potential to mitigate effects of current and future climate variabil- ity. To achieve this, we apply the APSIM farming systems model to evaluate how adaptation options for smallholder farmers can increase or maintain overall productivity within present day climate variability and future climates, using downscaled GCM baseline and 2030 climate scenarios. To extend beyond the 2030 climate change scenarios, we also assess production risk from an increase in ambient air temper- ature of 1.4–4.3 ◦C, atmospheric CO2 concentration of 545–885 ppm and variation in rainfall, for rainfed and irrigated systems to 2090. Modelled scenarios indicate a yield response to elevated CO2 of 17.5% at a concentration of 680 ppm for current temperature and rainfall and are consistent with established physiological effects of CO2 on crop yields. In response to temperature, yields decreased by 4% per degree increase from an average annual baseline temperature of 28 ◦C. Adaptation strategies involving deploy- ment of short duration rice varieties, in conjunction with direct seeding and better N management, indicate comparable and improved production can be achieved to 2030 under likely future climate pro- jections. However, beyond 2030, the distribution and timing of rainfall has a significant influence on rainfed lowland rice in Cambodia. In this case a more transformational approach involving widespread provision of irrigation water will be required to offset climate change impacts.

Full Article
 
keyword:
APSIM Climate change Response farming Cambodia Rice
Abstract
Rice production is the major source of food security in Cambodia where 85% of the total arable land is cultivated to rice with traditional transplanted medium and later maturity varieties accounting for >70% of the plantings during the monsoon period. Climate change poses risks and opportunities to the sus- tained productivity of rice based farming systems in Cambodia. The objective of this study is to evaluate adaptation strategies that support the replacement of traditional low input systems with a ‘response’ farming approach for better temporal utilisation of available labour, land and water resources. Options include replacing a traditional transplanted crop with short duration varieties, more efficient crop estab- lishment methods and better agronomic and fertiliser management that responds to timing, intensity and longevity of the monsoon and has potential to mitigate effects of current and future climate variabil- ity. To achieve this, we apply the APSIM farming systems model to evaluate how adaptation options for smallholder farmers can increase or maintain overall productivity within present day climate variability and future climates, using downscaled GCM baseline and 2030 climate scenarios. To extend beyond the 2030 climate change scenarios, we also assess production risk from an increase in ambient air temper- ature of 1.4–4.3 ◦C, atmospheric CO2 concentration of 545–885 ppm and variation in rainfall, for rainfed and irrigated systems to 2090. Modelled scenarios indicate a yield response to elevated CO2 of 17.5% at a concentration of 680 ppm for current temperature and rainfall and are consistent with established physiological effects of CO2 on crop yields. In response to temperature, yields decreased by 4% per degree increase from an average annual baseline temperature of 28 ◦C. Adaptation strategies involving deploy- ment of short duration rice varieties, in conjunction with direct seeding and better N management, indicate comparable and improved production can be achieved to 2030 under likely future climate pro- jections. However, beyond 2030, the distribution and timing of rainfall has a significant influence on rainfed lowland rice in Cambodia. In this case a more transformational approach involving widespread provision of irrigation water will be required to offset climate change impacts.

Full Article
 
Title:
Resistance to Sri Lankan Cassava MosaicVirus (SLCMV) in Genetically Engineered Cassava cv. KU50 through RNA Silencing, by Valentine Otang Ntui, Kynet Kong, Raham Sher Khan, Tomoko Igawa, Gnanaguru Janaky Janavi , Ramalingam Rabindran, Ikuo Nakamura , Masahiro Mii, PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120551 April 22, 2015
Description:
Abstract

Cassava ranks fifth among the starch producing crops of the world, its annual bioethanol yield is higher than for any other crop. Cassava cultivar KU50, the most widely grown culti- var for non-food purposes is susceptible to Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV). The objective of this work was to engineer resistance to SLCMV by RNA interference (RNAi) in order to increase biomass yield, an important aspect for bioethanol production. Here, we produced transgenic KU50 lines expressing dsRNA homologous to the region between the AV2 and AV1 of DNA A of SLCMV. High level expression of dsRNA of SLCMV did not in- duce any growth abnormality in the transgenic plants. Transgenic lines displayed high lev- els of resistance to SLCMV compared to the wild-type plants and no virus load could be detected in uninoculated new leaves of the infected resistant lines after PCR amplification and RT-PCR analysis. The agronomic performance of the transgenic lines was unimpaired after inoculation with the virus as the plants presented similar growth when compared to the mock inoculated control plants and revealed no apparent reduction in the amount and weight of tubers produced. We show that the resistance is correlated with post-transcription- al gene silencing because of the production of transgene specific siRNA. The results dem- onstrate that transgenic lines exhibited high levels of resistance to SLCMV. This resistance coupled with the desirable yield components in the transgenic lines makes them better can- didates for exploitation in the production of biomass as well as bioethanol.

Full Article
 
keyword:
N/A
Abstract

Cassava ranks fifth among the starch producing crops of the world, its annual bioethanol yield is higher than for any other crop. Cassava cultivar KU50, the most widely grown culti- var for non-food purposes is susceptible to Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV). The objective of this work was to engineer resistance to SLCMV by RNA interference (RNAi) in order to increase biomass yield, an important aspect for bioethanol production. Here, we produced transgenic KU50 lines expressing dsRNA homologous to the region between the AV2 and AV1 of DNA A of SLCMV. High level expression of dsRNA of SLCMV did not in- duce any growth abnormality in the transgenic plants. Transgenic lines displayed high lev- els of resistance to SLCMV compared to the wild-type plants and no virus load could be detected in uninoculated new leaves of the infected resistant lines after PCR amplification and RT-PCR analysis. The agronomic performance of the transgenic lines was unimpaired after inoculation with the virus as the plants presented similar growth when compared to the mock inoculated control plants and revealed no apparent reduction in the amount and weight of tubers produced. We show that the resistance is correlated with post-transcription- al gene silencing because of the production of transgene specific siRNA. The results dem- onstrate that transgenic lines exhibited high levels of resistance to SLCMV. This resistance coupled with the desirable yield components in the transgenic lines makes them better can- didates for exploitation in the production of biomass as well as bioethanol.

Full Article
 
Title:
Transgenic Tobacco Lines Expressing Defective CMV Replicase-Derived dsRNA Are Resistant to CMV-O and CMV-Y, by Valentine Otang Ntui, Kong Kynet, Raham Sher Khan, Mari Ohara, Yasuko Goto, Manabu Watanabe, Masanobu Fukami, Ikuo Nakamura, Masahiro Mii. Mol Biotechnol DOI 10.1007/s12033-013-9681-5
Description:

Abstract

Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a tripartite, positive sense RNA virus causing infections and yield losses to many plant species. Here, we generated a construct containing inverted repeat of 1,793 bp fragment of defective CMV replicase gene derived from RNA2 of cucumber mosaic virus strain O (CMV-O). The replicase gene was modified by deleting a 9 bp region between nucleotides 1909–1918. This caused a deletion in the active centre motif of polymerases, producing defective translated product 9 nucleotides shorter than the full length protein. The RNAi construct containing inverted repeat of the defective gene was used to produce transgenic tobacco lines expressing CMV-derived double-stranded RNA via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Of the four transgenic lines inoculated with CMV-O or CMV-Y in vitro and ex vivo, three lines (T1, T4 and T5) showed immunity to both strains of CMV as no symptoms were detected, whereas one line (T7) exhibited high resistance with mild symptoms limited to inoculation portions. No virus could be detected in uninoculated new leaves of the transgenic lines after RT-PCR and Dot-immunobinding assay analyses. Small interfering RNAs present in transgenic lines before and after virus challenge indicates that the resistance was acquired through RNA silencing.

Full article
 

keyword:
CMV dsRNA PTGS Replicase gene RNAi

Abstract

Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a tripartite, positive sense RNA virus causing infections and yield losses to many plant species. Here, we generated a construct containing inverted repeat of 1,793 bp fragment of defective CMV replicase gene derived from RNA2 of cucumber mosaic virus strain O (CMV-O). The replicase gene was modified by deleting a 9 bp region between nucleotides 1909–1918. This caused a deletion in the active centre motif of polymerases, producing defective translated product 9 nucleotides shorter than the full length protein. The RNAi construct containing inverted repeat of the defective gene was used to produce transgenic tobacco lines expressing CMV-derived double-stranded RNA via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Of the four transgenic lines inoculated with CMV-O or CMV-Y in vitro and ex vivo, three lines (T1, T4 and T5) showed immunity to both strains of CMV as no symptoms were detected, whereas one line (T7) exhibited high resistance with mild symptoms limited to inoculation portions. No virus could be detected in uninoculated new leaves of the transgenic lines after RT-PCR and Dot-immunobinding assay analyses. Small interfering RNAs present in transgenic lines before and after virus challenge indicates that the resistance was acquired through RNA silencing.

Full article
 

Title:
Nutrient balances for cassava cultivation in Kampong Cham province in Northeast Cambodia, by Sopheap, U Patanothai, A Aye, Tin Maung , U. Sopheap et al. / International Journal of Plant Production (2012) 6(1): 37-58
Description:
Abstract
In Cambodia, cassava is mostly grown with little or no fertilizer inputs, but the magnitudes of nutrient balances are not known. This study was conducted to assess nutrient balances for cassava cultivation in Kampong Cham province in Northeast Cambodia. Forty-five households in four cassava production zones were interviewed in relation to their cultural practices and crop residue management, upon which sources of nutrient inputs and outputs were based. Chemical fertilizer, manure, planting materials and rainfall were the defined inputs, while cassava roots and stumps were the outputs. Crop cutting was undertaken in the cassava fields of the 45 households to obtain weights of roots and other plant parts. Nutrient balances were calculated for the individual fields based on nutrient contents of the component sources obtained from the literatures. The results showed negative balances for all the nutrients evaluated. The imbalances were most serious for N, K and Ca with the averages of -64.45 kg N, -52.83 kg K and -10.83 kg Ca ha-1, but were less serious for P and Mg with the averages of -2.85 kg P and -7.20 kg Mg ha-1. These negative balances were the consequence of low nutrient inputs in current practices where only a few farmers applied low rates of chemical fertilizer or manure. Continued use of current practices will threaten the sustainability of cassava production in Cambodia. For long term productivity of the crop, the application of organic manures together with lime and chemical fertilizers high in N and K is recommended.

Full Article
keyword:
Soil nutrients; Agricultural sustainability; Soil fertility management; Cassava fertilization; Long-term productivity.
Abstract
In Cambodia, cassava is mostly grown with little or no fertilizer inputs, but the magnitudes of nutrient balances are not known. This study was conducted to assess nutrient balances for cassava cultivation in Kampong Cham province in Northeast Cambodia. Forty-five households in four cassava production zones were interviewed in relation to their cultural practices and crop residue management, upon which sources of nutrient inputs and outputs were based. Chemical fertilizer, manure, planting materials and rainfall were the defined inputs, while cassava roots and stumps were the outputs. Crop cutting was undertaken in the cassava fields of the 45 households to obtain weights of roots and other plant parts. Nutrient balances were calculated for the individual fields based on nutrient contents of the component sources obtained from the literatures. The results showed negative balances for all the nutrients evaluated. The imbalances were most serious for N, K and Ca with the averages of -64.45 kg N, -52.83 kg K and -10.83 kg Ca ha-1, but were less serious for P and Mg with the averages of -2.85 kg P and -7.20 kg Mg ha-1. These negative balances were the consequence of low nutrient inputs in current practices where only a few farmers applied low rates of chemical fertilizer or manure. Continued use of current practices will threaten the sustainability of cassava production in Cambodia. For long term productivity of the crop, the application of organic manures together with lime and chemical fertilizers high in N and K is recommended.

Full Article


Title:
Rice Germplasm Catalog of Cambodia IV
Description:
 
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Title:
Achievements in Research and Technology Development (1999-2017)
Description:
 
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Title:
Annual Report 2011
Description:

The Cambodian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARDI) is delighted to present the 2011 Annual Report to various stakeholders who are interested in agricultural crop research and production. This report presents the main research findings and achievements of Plant Breeding, Soil and Water Sciences, Plant Protection, Agricultural Engineering, Socio-Economic Sciences, Agronomy and Farming System Offices, Training and Information Center, and other supporting offices.

keyword:
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The Cambodian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARDI) is delighted to present the 2011 Annual Report to various stakeholders who are interested in agricultural crop research and production. This report presents the main research findings and achievements of Plant Breeding, Soil and Water Sciences, Plant Protection, Agricultural Engineering, Socio-Economic Sciences, Agronomy and Farming System Offices, Training and Information Center, and other supporting offices.

Title:
Weeds of Rice in Asia
Description:

 

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Title:
PHKA RUMDOL PRANG
Description:

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Title:
Summary Report on Main Achievements of Agricultural Research and Technology Development in 2017​ ​and Strategic Directions for 2018
Description:
 Summary Report on Main Achievements of Agricultural Research and Technology Development in 2017 and Strategic Directions for 2018
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 Summary Report on Main Achievements of Agricultural Research and Technology Development in 2017 and Strategic Directions for 2018
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